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Write for me internet of things uk conference phd research topics in hr management for money purchase dissertation results on affirmative action for money hi I'm Mike Stoll welcome to the MBA business boot camp in management what we're gonna do is help prepare you to be successful in the management courses that you'll be taking in the MBA program we're gonna give you some basic concepts and information that's going to get you up to speed and make the classes more enjoyable and hopefully make you more successful let's get to it right now I'm joined by dr. Cathy Pelletier who's a professor of management in the College of Business and public administration dr. Pelletier is an outstanding teacher she's twice won our outstanding Teaching Award in the college and she's here today to talk about a really exciting topic of toxic leadership Kathy what is toxic leadership toxic leadership it's a very interesting phenomenon because it is a process where leaders who by dint of their you know dysfunctional personality traits they engage in behaviors that are very destructive and the litmus test of toxic leadership is if the followers are in worse shape after having encountered the leader than when the leader first found them so it's a very interesting phenomenon and I'm glad to see that it is gaining steam in the and the research fields excellent not a lot of people have heard of this this field what interested you about it well there's two reasons primarily the longer one works the more likely that person is to encounter a leader who's toxic and so I think a lot of my research stems from my experiences in the workplace and dealing with various forms of leaders it's because that then it prompts research questions like what causes leaders to turn destructive why do we as followers tolerate these leaders and what are the conditions in which we can challenge or topple bad leaders the second reason that I became interested in this field was well my area of research is leadership but if you walk through any bookstore and you go down the rows of the you know the help books and the organizational business aisles you'll see that most of the leadership books are presented with a positive paradigm that we're always looking at affective leadership and we should I mean it's important but we read title such as going from good to great and the right stuff and seven Habits of Highly Effective leaders well those of us who have been subjected to toxic leaders realize where's the book I can read to tell me how to take a leader who's toxic and get them just a good right so that's what prompted my interest in this field interesting now how do we know when a leader is toxic what do they do or where they say that makes them toxic well there's - that's a good question there's two ways of looking at this the first is what is the leader doing number one what kind of behaviors are the exhibiting so when we look at some of the common behaviors of leaders who are destructive we might see that they're engaging in bullying they attack their subordinate self-esteem so you might see ridicule riddick public ridiculed the meaning of people demoralizing degrading people toxic leaders also tend to ostracize people and you know the really dysfunctional borderline personalities tend to pit employees against another castigate employees when they have different opinions and so you know first off is just looking at what are they doing what kind of harm are the imposing the second way to tell if leaders are toxic is how are they making me feel so a lot of my research has focused on what are the effects of these destructive behaviors on followers and the fascinating and the challenging thing is one person's toxic leader could be another person's hero right so how do we you know if we can't even get agreement that a leader is toxic it becomes very difficult to do something about it interesting you mentioned the role of the follower what role does the follower play on leaders toxicity well this is a one of the primary areas in my research if we take a look at followers and our needs as humans we have a need we have pragmatic needs we're we don't want a challenge a leader because we might lose our job we we have a need for safety and security so leaders who promise us that they can keep us safe or if they can present us with projects where we feel like we could live on symbolically right immortality projects as they're called we can we will aid and abet these toxic leaders right because there's too much to lose there's too much at stake if we challenge them on the other hand there are followers who tend to fall into the leaders entourage and as a function of being in that in-group they are expected to be loyal to the leader but for the leader from failure take the bullet for the leader and they get a lot of rewards from the leader for those kinds of actions so I think that's another reason why we'll see that some followers will simply tolerate leaders and we certainly see sometimes politically that the needs of followers we might even push a leader towards the toxic cliff by putting so much on the leaders shoulders to bear that we don't help them carry the load interesting so and some inadvertently we can sometimes contribute to leader toxicity absolutely interesting absolutely if I was working in an organization and I was I had a leader that exhibited many of the characteristics that you've identified as as being toxic how what kind of strategies could I use to cope with it or even challenge that leader yes that's the key question I think that's the question of the day you know there are some strategies you know that have been well published and we're still testing them but here's the first I think the safest strategy for anyone who is subjected to a leader that's inflicting serious and long-lasting harm is to go around and find out if there are any other powerful like-minded people who have witnessed the same thing who would join you and either going to the leader directly if you feel you have that relationship the key is never challenge alone you know a lot of times we think we're gonna we're going to come and save the day but when we do that depending on the nature of the leader and the destructive actions you could be targeted yourself so the safest strategy is find a coalition go to the leader if you're not comfortable doing that you know every leader if it's a CEO you go to the board right but every organizational leader political leader has someone they report to someone they're accountable to you can try that however you never know but the relationship is between the toxic leader and the the person above that person so other times we might report the leader to the media and what I see mostly in my research are people will tolerate it to an extent and then they choose to leave the organization and as I tell my students we deserve better and if you feel that you can't affect change in your organization get out and leave yeah because I would imagine that the sort of the long-term effects of dealing with a toxic leader could be pretty dramatic absolutely we I I've had people who have told me about hospitalized ulcers firsthand I have worked with very very young people at the start of their careers who literally have had to leave the work place due to health reasons psychological and physical now you're one of the leading scholars in this area that's actually looking at toxic leadership and you've presented papers at conferences you've had your work published in the top journals and in regard to leadership so you've really delved in deeply into this topic what are the most compelling findings that you've discovered in your research the first contrary to popular belief toxic leadership is an equal opportunity offender such that there are no gender differences in leader toxicity men and women are equally equally likely to exhibit toxic behaviors men tend to engage more in bullying women tend to be more of the public ridicule kinds of behaviors however their findings that have shocked me our stories from employees that have told me how a female through a Swingline stapler at her head I had a a male participant tell me how he was in the military and his doctor prescribed 48 hours bed rest for him and his commanding officer didn't buy it and made him stand 24 hours out in the cold so he was gravely ill and another the other story and there's so many of them which is so which motivates me to continue my work in this area was simply a woman who was not achieving her sales targets and she went into a meeting and her manager told her she had to sit on the lap of all the men in the room for five minutes just so she could be taught a lesson so that these are the most compelling findings but the most heartening finding that I'm I've seen to date in the research is that the most the people who are most likely to challenge the toxic leader are the people who tend to be disenfranchised as we might expect right so people who are in the leaders out group are very watchful of what the leaders doing because they feel inequitably treated but in my experimental studies when when they were witnessing a toxic leader people in the out-group were most most likely to challenge the leader even when the leader was targeting a member of his or her entourage so they're the ones who are gonna speak up and I I'd like to think that's because they feel they have nothing left to lose so that was a surprising finding because some of us would feel that maybe it's the entourage who are closer to the leader who can say you know listen your behavior was not your behavior was rather destructive today put it in check that that is not the case interesting yeah so where does the field go from here you're you're doing more research with what do you think is going to happen in terms of researching this topic is there anything new or exciting on the horizon yes there there certainly are I mean most of the research in the recent past and this is a new and emerging field with which is why it's exciting but we're focusing a lot on leader and follower and my research is looking at not so much what the leader does but its effect on followers and then what are their reactions and are their reactions based on some psychological drivers I'm also looking at the the conducive environments what's going on in organizational culture that would allow the leader to do so much damage and the last piece that they where the field is heading now what to do about it and so I'm gonna be drawing from whistleblower research and ethics research to look at you know maybe we ought to look at some of the same interventions that we see in organizations for whistleblowing and apply those for a toxic leader so Kathy that's interesting because I was thinking in my mind that probably not everybody is born a toxic leader that there may be situations or culture of an organization may dictate certain styles and maybe I'm a mid-level manager and because of my leadership above me is employing this style I almost have to do the same to sort of get along and be a part of the in-group have you found that to be true in your research well where's here's the first part that you said was we don't wake up in the morning most of us and think about how will wreak havoc that day in the organization and that that ties back to a point that professor Lippmann blumen makes in her book she's another noted scholar in this area that leaders can be toxic whether they're intentionally or unintentionally whether it's intentional or unintentional I mean seriously leaders can be intentionally toxic by through avarice greed Machiavellianism or they just simply may be incompetent but you're right that to the extent that the culture becomes topic followers have a choice and so that's where I I have not done research in this area yet but you give me a great idea is to look at the levels of moral reasoning of the followers and looking at characteristics of integrity and ethics and followers and see if that has any influence on the decisions they make when they're in an organization where the culture is almost forcing them to do things they wouldn't ordinarily interesting since our MBA students are viewing this it would seem that being aware of the fact that they can be toxic and maybe not even be not even know that they're doing it this would be an important thing for them to understand as they make their way through the MBA program and ultimately the rest of their careers absolutely and the fact that you're bringing that up reminds me that I have had students not not just at the NBA level but at the undergraduate level who are just starting out in leadership positions and they come to me after class after I've gone through the laundry list of the dysfunctional personality traits and behaviors and they're concerned that they're toxic so I tell them the fact that you're up here and your concern tells me you're probably not right and that's where we let them know that a toxic leader is not your garden-variety you know hard supervisor who tells you to work harder it tells you that you know to work faster or gives you a poor performance appraisal so I think it's important that at this stage in their educational career that they realize two things what toxic leader is what to do about it and the fact that it exists you know that they're going to experience somebody over the course of their life in organizations or or in other realms of society and they have to understand it so they can know how they can respond yeah yeah they can be self-aware and also got it in the people that they manage you know that they're managers that that work for them yes don't display that that type of behavior right and I think the other great thing about having this conversation is that and you can correct me if I'm wrong but my sense is that most MBA programs talk about leadership but very few of them actually delve deep into this idea of toxicity and and both from the leader perspective and the follower perspective absolutely correct as a matter of fact I get emails from students at other universities you know wanting to know if I you know can help them or even serve on their committees simply because the expertise is not at those universities so this is a plus that we do have such faculty with diverse research interests better gaining popularity so it's a real value add for our students in the MBA program to be able to to take a course in management and be exposed to leadership and be exposed to toxic leadership because they it's going to give them basically an advantage in their careers to be able to have this all knowledge I agree yes Kathy thanks again for joining us and sharing that great insight on toxic leadership now the next step is to go to the voice guided PowerPoint presentation they should take about 15 to 20 minutes and we'll provide you with a real foundation and management concepts as it relates to organizational behavior and organizational theory these are going to be critical concepts to for your success as you move to the MBA essentials course in particular the management 601 course data science capstone final project submission order Mercy College (New York).