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Good research topics for linguistics order do my davidson capstone samsung galaxy s4 techeblog review of literature hi this is Richard said Lachman welcome back to the green ninja course on climate science this episode features a very brief perusal of the history of human energy consumption and then leads into a discussion of modern trends in energy consumption chiefly involving the US energy is the basis of all life-forms on earth the most fundamental energy source for living creatures is solar radiation and the most important energy conversion is photosynthesis or biological primary production in which plants and phytoplankton converts solar radiation into biomass because almost all animals including humans cannot perform photosynthesis to live to survive and thrive they must access and use sources of energy that are outside of their bodies so here's a small dose of like sociology or history anthropology for thousands of years the primary focus of human family structures social groupings and political and economic institutions was obtaining energy either food or energy resources such as wood or peat for cooking and heating and lighting for thousands of years there was very little change in the complexity of human societies and not coincidentally in humanity's population or in its consumption footprint then humans discovered fossil fuels this quote is from a publication of the US Energy Information Agency widespread intensive use of fossil fuels freed human society from the limitations of natural energy flows tapping these ancient concentrated deposits of solar energy enormous Li multiplied the rate at which energy could be poured into the human economy as a direct result humans and human societies underwent profound social transformations with unprecedented speed earlier transitions such as from human muscle power to animals or from animals to windmills occurred over a much longer time and thus gave human social institutions much more I'm to adapt to the changes there's lots of interesting food for thought along these lines but we'll leave it for somebody else's sociology course fossil fuels provide astonishing amounts of concentrated energy at incredibly cheap prices even today after oil prices have increased tenfold since 1999 actually more than tenfold a gallon of gasoline cost less than $4 compare that to the price of a gallon of double latte or beer or orange juice this cheap energy has been the principal principal enabler of economic growth and expansion in the last 200 years this quote is from Charlie Hall a really astute ecological economists take the money out of the economy and an economy could continue to function via barter though in an awkward limited inefficient way but take the energy out of the economy in the economy would immediately contract immensely or stop altogether we saw this pair of diagrams in episode 20 they illustrate the enormous increase in human consumption of energy over time the diagram on the Left shows that total energy used by humans has increased exponentially as is particularly noticeable in the last two eras but the important graph here is really the one on the right it shows energy use per person so by dividing energy use total energy use by population it eliminates the role or the the impact of population growth so an average human today is anywhere on the planet average consumes 200 times as much energy as a Paleolithic caveman 20 times as much as an average human in early agricultural society and three to four times as much as human from about a hundred years ago in the industrial size society but numbers for an average American are much higher than these this graph from the energy information of society shows the energy mix in the u.s. since 1700 through 1850 wood was the only game in town and total energy use was low in the late 1800s coal started to replace wood and by 1900 coal was king but the use of oil here labeled petroleum and then natural gas which started in the late 1800s soared during and after World War two and so did total energy use partly due to a resurgence in coal and to develop a nuclear power but chiefly because oil and gas or so efficient and cheap well it's finally time to talk about petroleum the basis of modern complex society we'll continue our examination of it in the next several episodes petroleum is a thick flammable yellow to black mixture of solid liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that occurs naturally beneath the earth's surface hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting of unsurprisingly hydrogen and carbon naturally occurring solid Haag hydrocarbons aren't common but they have many uses for instance paraffin naturally occurring liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons are the most abundant and the most valuable the gases include propane methane butane and ethane combined these are termed at natural gas natural gas has many uses uses it's burned to generate electricity heat or cooking fires it's used in making artificial fertilizers and in other sorts of manufacturing and to a very very very limited extent at least in the u.s. used for transportation when it's underground natural gas contains small droplets of liquid hydrocarbons term natural gas liquids or NGLs when natural gas rises to the Earth's surface where the pressure and temperature are lower some of the gas condenses to form liquid condensate but together the NGOs and the condensate comprise only about 1/10 of the liquid hydrocarbon total the top dog the Sultan the crux of the petroleum world is crude oil which is in liquid form underground and at the surface refined crude oil fuels vast bulk of us transportation needs and about a third of us into dust industrial needs and is similarly fundamental to all the economies of the world and by the way as an aside you refer to this earlier some sources apply the term petroleum only to liquid hydrocarbons or even just a crude oil but I use the more common broader definition which is liquid solid and gas here's a reminder about the link between fossil fuels and climate when fossil fuels like petroleum or coal are burned in the air carbon dioxide is released carbon dioxide as a potent greenhouse gas and its atmospheric concentration is increased by 50 percent in the last 200 years exact time over which humans have discovered and used fossil fuels humans initially used very very little or small amounts of petroleum for thousands of years chiefly for fire and for warfare in the Middle East naphtha tar and kerosene began to be exploited in a very limited way in the 8th to 12th centuries now these early users depended on small natural seeps where petroleum rises to the surface because the pressure underground is so high but there aren't many of those and they were easily exhausted well the demand for petroleum on the world market grew slowly but it started to take off in the late 1800s by about 1860 whale oil had been replaced in lamps by kerosene petroleum past coal is the world's primary fuel source in 1940 and is still the most valuable commodity in the global marketplace let's look at US consumption of energy resources a healthy adult like this attentive college student produces about 1 hour per day of power power is the amount of energy converted per unit time so this is equivalent to the power produced by a 40 watt incandescent light bulb it's on and running 24 hours a day in the US an average American consumes about 91 thousand kilowatt hours per year well ninety ninety-one thousand kilowatt hours per years two hundred forty nine kilowatt hours per day but remember a healthy adult only produces one kilowatt hour per day on his or her own those other 248 kilowatt hours a day that we use in America have to come from sources of energy outside of our bodies in order to survive and thrive as I said in slide two so we can think of the energy at our command as equivalent to the work that could be done by 248 energy slaves per American now the sources that you see here art those that we saw in slide five chiefly we're getting our energy from petroleum and coal per capita energy use in the u.s. which isn't shown on this graph increase steadily in the 20th century until the oil crises of the 1970s and it's been fairly constant since then the blue curve at the top shows the US and Canada this is per capita use well obviously the US Americans and Canadians use far more energy per capita than people in the other regions or countries shown on this graph twice as much as those barbaric backward European nations like Austria and Sweden and France and Germany of the UK and Denmark and though China's usage is increasing very rapidly it's still only about a fifth of the US per capita use here's another global comparison the US with about four point five percent of the world population consumes almost a quarter of the world's oil and over one-fifth of all energy combined now the percentages have dropped very slightly since these graphics were produced but the numbers are still extraordinarily out of proportion compared to people in the other parts of the world Americans are the world's foremost energy gluttons what energy resources does the u.s. use and what do we use the energy for these questions are answered by this outstanding diagram produced every year by folks at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory using official US figures the boxes and the flow channels are scaled in size according to their numerical values in this diagram numbers are given in quadrillion btus a common energy measure because 2011 US power consumption was ninety seven point three quadrillion btus as you see at the top of the graph every number on the diagram is close to being a percentage right because something divided by ninety seven point three is almost the same as something divided by a hundred this diagram also shows the energy used by the residential commercial industrial and transportation sectors in the US see those on tho and pink boxes on the right for each of the four the energy that's used is partly in the form of electricity which comes out of the box in the top middle of the diagram and partly from energy resources in their direct form so residential users consume four point eight six quadrillion BTUs of electricity that's the orange flow channel that's coming in and four point eight three quadrillion BTUs of natural gas that's the blue flow channel so I like everything about these diagrams a whole lot except that they use the word petroleum where you see petroleum the bottom left there think oil when I used to teach classes at San Jose State with these episodes I assigned a bunch of simple math problems using this diagram and its predecessors from previous years we want to capstone nurse patient ratios Maritime College.