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Capstone project abstract example order write for me capstone vision statement movie based on novel 2018 essays the rules of basketball are the rules and regulations that govern the play officiating equipment and procedures of basketball while many of the basic rules are uniform throughout the world variations do exist most leagues or governing bodies in North America the most important of which are the National Basketball Association and NCAA formulate their own rules in addition the technical Commission of the International Basketball Federation determines rules for international play most leagues outside North America use the complete FIBA rule set original rules in January 15 1892 James Naismith published his rules for the game of basketball that he invented the original game played under these rules was quite different than the one played today as there was no dribbling dunking three-pointers or shot clock and goaltending was legal the ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands the ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands a player cannot run with the ball the player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it allowance to be made for a man who catches the ball when running at a good speed if he tries to stop the ball must be held in or between the hands the arms or body must not be used for holding it no shouldering holding striking pushing or tripping in any way of an opponent the first infringement of this rule by any person shall count as a foul the second shall disqualify him until the next basket is made or if there was evident intent to injure the person for the whole of the game no substitution shall be allowed a foul is striking at the ball with the fist violation of rules three and four and such described in rule 5 if either side makes three consecutive fouls it shall count a goal for the opponent's a goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the grounds into the basket and stays there providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal if the ball rests on the edges and the opponent moves the basket it shall count as a goal when the ball goes out of bounds it shall be thrown into the field of play and played by the first person touching it in case of dispute the umpire shall throw it straight into the field the thrower in is allowed 5 seconds if he holds it longer it shall go to the opponent if any side persists in delaying the game the umpire shall call a foul on that side the umpire shall be the judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made he shall have power to disqualify people according to rule 5 the referee shall be judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play in bounds to which side it belongs and shall keep the time he shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the baskets with any other duties that are usually performed by a score keeper the time shall be two 15-minute halves with five minutes rest between the side making the most points and that time is declared the winner players substitutes teams and teammates Naismith's original rules did not specify how many players were to be on the court in 1905 players became standard and players that were substituted were not allowed to re-enter the game players were allowed to re-enter a game once from 1921 and twice from 1934 such restrictions on substitutions were abolished in 1945 when substitutions became unlimited coaching was originally prohibited during the game but from 1949 coaches were allowed to address players during a timeout originally a player was disqualified on his second foul this limit became for fouls in 1911 and five fouls in 1945 still the case in most forms of basketball where the normal length of the game is 40 minutes when the normal length is 48 minutes a player is accordingly disqualified on his sixth foul shot clock and time limits the first time restriction on possession of the ball was introduced in 1933 where teams were required to advance the ball over the center line within 10 seconds of gaining possession this rule remained until 2000 when FIBA reduced the requirement to eight seconds the NBA following suit in 2001 the NCAA retains the 10-second rule for men's play but has yet to adopt this rule for women's play in May 2013 the NCAA women's basketball rules committee recommended adding the ten-second rule starting in the 2013 a Euro 14 season the change is expected to be approved by an NCAA oversight committee in June u.s. high schools whose rules are drafted by NFHS also used the ten second rule for both sexes in 1936 the three second rule was introduced this rule prohibits offensive players from remaining near their opponent's basket for longer than three seconds a game central to this rules introduction was that between the University of Kentucky and New York University Kentucky coach Adolph Rupp did not take one of his referees with him despite being warned of discrepancies in officiating between the Midwest and east by Notre Dame coach George Keegan and the game became especially rough because of this game and others six 5-inches Kentucky all-american Center Leroy Edwards is generally recognized as the player responsible for the three-second rule while the rule was originally adopted to reduce roughness in the area between big men it is now considered to prevent tall offensive players from gaining an advantage by weighting close to the basket when the NBA started to allow zone defense in 2001 a three-second rule for defensive players was also introduced the shot clock was first introduced by the NBA in 1954 to increase the speed of play teams were then required to attempt to shot within 24 seconds of gaining possession and the shot clock would be reset when the ball touched the baskets rim or the backboard or the opponents gained possession FIBA adopted a 30-second shot clock two years later resetting the clock when a shot was attempted women's basketball adopted a 30-second clock in 1971 the NCAA adopted a 45 five-second shot clock for men while continuing with the 30-second clock for women in 1985 the men's shot clock was then reduced to 35 seconds in 1993 FIBA reduced the shot clock to 24 seconds in 2000 and changed the clocks resetting to when the ball touched the rim of the basket originally a missed shot where the shot clock expired while the ball is in the air constituted a violation in 2003 the rule was changed so that the ball remains live in this situation as long as it touched the rim if the ball touches the rim and slightly bounces over the basketball hoop it will be called as a loose ball fouls free-throws and violations dribbling was not part of the original game but was introduced in 1901 at the time a player could only bounce the ball once and could not shoot after he had dribbled the definition of dribbling became the continuous passage of the ball in 1909 allowing more than one bounce and a player who had dribbled was then allowed to shoot running with the ball ceased to be considered a foul in 1922 and became a violation meaning that the only penalty was loss of possession striking the ball with the fist has also become a violation from 1931 if a closely guarded player withheld the ball from play for five seconds play was stopped and resumed with a jump ball such a situation has since become a violation by the ball-carrier goaltending became a violation in 1944 and offensive goaltending in 1958 free-throws were introduced shortly after basketball was invented in 1895 the free throw line was officially placed 15 feet from the blackboard prior to which most gymnasiums placed 120 feet from the blackboard from 1924 players that received a foul were required to shoot their own free throws one free throw shot is awarded to a player who was fouled while making a successful field goal attempt if the field goal attempt is unsuccessful two free throw shots are awarded if an offensive player is fouled while not in the act of shooting or if a player is fouled in a loose ball situation the penalty varies by level of play and the number of fouls accumulated by the opposing team in a given period in NCAA and NFHS play if the players team has six or fewer team fouls in the half the team fouled gets possession of the ball if the team has seven to nine team fouls the player fouled goes to the line for what is called one and one or the bonus a euro that is if the player makes the first free throw he gets the opportunity to attempt a second but if he misses the ball is live if the team has ten or more fouls in the half the player fouled gets two free throws often called the double bonus all overtime periods are considered an extension of the second half for purposes of accumulated fouls also NFHS rules accumulate fouls per half even though games are played in quarters in the NBA if the players team has four or fewer team fouls in the quarter the team fouled gets possession of the ball starting with the team's fifth foul in the quarter the player fouled gets two free throws over time is not considered an extension of any quarter instead the penalty of two free throws is triggered on the team's fourth foul in that overtime period foul limits a reset in the last two minutes of a quarter or overtime period if a team has not reached its limit of accumulated fouls the first team foul in the last two minutes results in possession by the team fouled and all subsequent fouls result in two free throws in FIBA play if the players team has four or fewer team fouls in the quarter the team fouled gets possession of the ball starting with the team's fifth foul in the quarter the player fouled gets two free throws during an interval of play all team members entitled to play are considered as players the ball become dead when an official blows his whistle while the ball is live all over time periods are considered an extension of the fourth quarter for purposes of accumulated fouls a player has ten seconds to attempt a free throw if the player does not attempt a free throw within 10 seconds of receiving the ball the free-throw attempt is lost and a free-throw violation is called a free-throw violation also occurs if a free-throw misses the backboard rim and basket if a free-throw violation is assessed in the last free-throw awarded to a player in a given situation possession automatically reverts to the opposing team a charge is physical contact between an offensive player and a defensive player in order to draw an offensive charge the defensive player must establish legal guarding positioning in the path of the offensive player if contact is made the officials would issue an offensive charge no points will be allowed and the ball is turned over the defensive player may not draw an offensive charge in the restricted zone blocking as physical contact between the offensive player and the defensive player blocking fouls are issued when a defensive player interferes with the path of the offensive player in the shooting motion blocking fouls are easily called when the defensive player is standing in the restricted zone restricted zone in 1997 the NBA introduced an arc of a 4-foot radius around the basket in which an offensive foul for charging could not be assessed this was to prevent defensive players from attempting to draw an offensive foul on their opponents by standing underneath the basket FIBA adopted this arc with a 1.25 am radius in 2010 equipment the ball was to be an ordinary association football in other words a soccer ball the goal is placed 10 feet above the court originally a basket was used so the ball had to be retrieved after each made shot today a hoop with an open bottom hanging net is used instead officiating and procedures originally there was one umpire to judge fouls and one referee to judge the ball the tradition of calling one official the referee and the other one or two the umpires has remained today both classes of officials have equal rights to control all aspects of the game the NBA added a third official in 1988 and fib a did so afterward using it for the first time in international competition in 2006 the use of video evidence to inform referees decisions has always been banned except in the case of determining whether or not the last shot of a period was attempted before time expired this exception was introduced by the NBA in 2002 and adopted by FIBA in 2006 the NCAA however has permitted instant replay for timing the value of a field goal shot clock violations and for purposes of disqualifying players because of unsportsmanlike conduct the NBA changed its rules starting in 2007 to allow officials the ability to view instant replay with plays involving flagrant fouls similar to the NCAA in Italy's Syria an American football style coach's challenge is permitted to challenge an officials call on any situation similar to the NCAA the center jump ball that was used to restart a game after every successful field goal was eliminated in 1938 in favor of the ball being given to the non scoring team from behind the end line where the goal was scored in order to make play more continuous the jump ball was still used to start the game and every period and to restart the game after a held ball however the NBA stopped using the jump ball to start the second through fourth quarters in 1975 instead using a quarter possession system where the loser of the jump ball takes the ball from the other end to start the second and third periods while the winner of that jump ball takes the ball to start the fourth period from the other end of the court in 1981 the NCAA adopted the alternating possession system for all jump ball situations except the beginning of the game and in 2003 FIBA adopted a similar rule except for the start of the third period and overtime in 2004 the rule was changed in FIBA that the arrow applies for all situations after the opening tap in 1976 the NBA introduced a rule to allow teams to advance the ball to the center line following any legal timeout in the final two minutes of the game FIBA followed suit in 2006 international rules of basketball the most recent international rules of basketball were approved April 26 2008 by FIBA and became effective October 1st of that year there are eight rules encompassing fifty articles covering equipment and facilities regulations regarding teams players captains and coaches playing regulations violations fouls and their penalties special situations and the officials and table officials the rules also cover officials signals the scoresheet protest procedure classification of teams in television timeouts references further reading external links rules of the game at user basketball comm FIBA NBA and NCAA rules compared side-by-side official basketball rules at FIBA comm official NBA rules NBA rules and regulations at NBA comm NCAA basketball rulebook referee signal a euro picture description of referee signal at youth - basketball - tips calm basketball drills and practice plans FIBA / USA basketball rule differences and rule changes for various rulemaking bodies research proposal topics in business administration order Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development.