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Survey paper on swarm intelligence order what is the meaning of a one track mind for money reportagem batv juazeiro Stephanie is an albino she was born with delicate hair that's more white than blonde her pale skin is so sensitive that prolonged exposure to the Sun would jeopardize her health the cause of Stephanie's condition is a single missing enzyme that is necessary for the body to produce melanin a pigment that colors hair skin and eyes while albinism is not a life-threatening condition other enzyme related disorders are more serious this presentation will examine how enzymes work to ensure our health and well-being and what happens when they don't work well in the body enzymes operate in much the same way as the assembly line in a car factory in the beginning of the automobile era Henry Ford recognized that it would be inefficient for just one individual to build a whole car Ford organized his factory so that many laborers worked side by side each doing a specific job for example one worker might be responsible for tightening a specific bolt while another would attach a tire in this way a finished car was the product of a long series of steps involving many different workers in a similar way the chemical reactions in the body take place in an ordered series of steps each step involving an enzyme that performs a specific job these series are called enzyme pathways and different pathways serve such vital functions as providing energy for cells digesting food and synthesizing new body tissue like the workers on an assembly line the enzymes in a pathway function in a variety of ways some enzymes may split up molecules into smaller products other enzymes may do no more than clip a hydrogen atom off their substrate and still others may accept two substrates taking a chunk from one and transferring it to the other this greatly simplified diagram illustrates how an enzyme pathway as a whole might work a molecule is changed a little bit by the first enzyme a little more of the second and so on until the end product is produced but what happens if an enzyme is missing from a pathway the result is that the pathway is disrupted and the effects depend on the particular enzyme and the particular pathway involved one example might be the enzyme tyrosinase when this enzyme is missing the body fails to produce the pigment melanin the consequence as we've seen is an albino like Stephanie tyrosinase is ordinarily part of a pathway that controls several activities in the body more serious consequences result if the enzyme right before tyrosinase in the same pathway is missing this enzyme is called phenylalanine hydroxylase when phenylalanine hydroxylase is missing the result is a disease called phenylketonuria or PKU PKU can lead to severe mental retardation and often results in an early death fortunately a special diet started very early in life can prevent these consequences PKU is a hereditary disease the result of a pair of defective genes passed down to a child from his or her parents genes determine how hereditary information is transmitted from one generation to the next they are crucial for survival because they regulate the manufacture of proteins the body's building blocks since enzymes are proteins the kinds of enzymes manufactured in the body are dependent on specific genes consequently a defective gene or genes can mean that not enough of a particular enzyme or no enzyme at all is produced this deficient or missing enzyme in turn can cause the breakdown of an enzyme pathway that is responsible for important chemical reactions in the body so genes play a critical role in how enzymes affect our health other factors besides genes can also be important to how enzymes work up to this point we've been viewing enzyme reactions as involving two primary participants enzymes and substrates the fact is however that a great many enzymes cannot catalyze reactions by themselves sometimes for example an enzyme and a substrate don't fit together properly in this case an additional molecule is required one that provides something the enzyme needs in order to react with a substrate such molecules are called cofactors many enzyme catalyzed reactions would be impossible without them one important group of cofactors is minerals such as magnesium iron calcium and zinc these minerals can be purchased as dietary supplements but our primary source of minerals is the food we eat every day vegetables such as Tomatoes beets and peppers are rich in minerals that are essential for the proper functioning of certain enzymes spinach is another food renowned for the mineral content when we eat spinach digestive juices in the stomach break it down and release the minerals among these free minerals is the metal magnesium free magnesium atoms find their way to the catalytic sites of certain enzymes here they form temporary chemical bonds with their host enzymes with its magnesium cofactor in place the enzyme can attract its substrate and make it easier for a chemical reaction to occur magnesium is essential for many of the important chemical reactions in the body for example the synthesis of any protein in the human body cannot take place without magnesium as a cofactor examples of other minerals vital to our health are calcium and iron calcium plays a role in reactions that enable the body to contract muscles and conduct nerve impulses while iron is necessary for enzymes that help ensure that the body cells get enough oxygen besides minerals there are other types of cofactors that are vital to our health these are called coenzymes unlike enzymes coenzymes and other cofactors are not proteins but coenzymes differ from minerals in that they are complex organic compounds some vitamins play co-enzyme roles and are essential participants in a number of chemical reactions like other cofactors coenzymes help enzymes and substrates bind to one another while everyone is familiar with vitamin supplements eating the right combination of foods easily provides all the vitamins we need because the body requires vitamins in very small amounts if a diet is not well balanced however a deficiency in vitamins can result in serious diseases in the past for example sailors on extended voyages suffered from scurvy a disease that results from a diet deficient in vitamin C but an English surgeon demonstrated that by drinking a lot of lemon or lime juice both rich in vitamin C scurvy could be cured or prevented from occurring at all British sailors in fact were required to drink so much of these juices that they were soon nicknamed limeys peanuts are a good source for another important vitamin niacin a member of the B vitamin family as niacin is digested it changes form slightly and joins with other chemicals to form a substance called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or nad for short is involved in most of the enzyme reactions that release energy for our cells particularly skin nerve and digestive tract tissue what happens when niacin is in short supply in the body some of the symptoms are sleeplessness nervous irritability headaches and stomachaches they occur because without niacin many enzymes are deprived of the coenzyme without which they cannot do their work we've seen how cofactors such as vitamins and minerals contribute to our health by helping enzymes do their work capstone title company colorado springs order Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science.