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Sociology capstone ideas biology research topics examples ruger 10 22 tdt review of literature it turns out that the stars are formed in so called giant molecular clouds and this is a famous Hubble Space Telescope photograph of an example of part of giant molecular cloud what is shown here are these so-called pillars of creation these are clones they are protruding out one huge giant molecular cloud and here as I'll explain later we have direct observational evidence that stars indeed get formed in these giant molecular clouds because their diameter ranges from 15 to about 600 light-years across okay and as I pointed out earlier these columns here the one on the left its height is one light here from the top to the bottom okay so you can appreciate how large these structures are turns out that they are dense enough and the dust in such cloud blocks the starlight from surrounding stars so that the temperature in the interior is cold enough that the hydrogen atoms bind into hydrogen molecules okay so simply the electrical forces manage to combine two hydrogen atoms to form a single entity hydrogen molecule which consists of two hydrogen atoms now it turns out that the material within this cloud is not distributed uniformly there are clumps of higher density okay so if this region here is giant molecular cloud there are pockets of higher density okay so this kinetically illustrates the existence of these clumps and if you go to the actual photograph of that particular nebula and 16 by the way they it's cents for mercy object 16 centuries ago astronomers were fascinated by watching comets and they would they noted there are some fuzzy regions in the night sky they were bad to point their telescopes in those directions so what NASA did he actually located all of these and put them in catalog and this particular one he had the catalog number 16 so therefore this is N 16 and of course much later with the Hubble Space Telescope we found out what these diffused regions in the night sky really are right but you can see on this Hubble image that indeed there are clumpy regions that have been exposed as the UV radiation from very hot surrounding stars evaporates the surface material of less density so what it exposes are these clumps of more dense material so indeed it's not that we are guessing that these funds exist but indeed we have observational evidence that they are there okay and the question is how do and why do these clumps form and one possible scenario although probably there are more is that if there is a nearby massive star that ends it's life in a huge explosion type 2 supernova that the shock waves from the explosion actually as they pass through this cloud who create the clumps which in turn results in these clumps as the shock wave passes through the cloud okay and let me just show you I've linked under the study aids a little animation from NASA that illustrates what I'm talking about see there is a sickness cloud a massive star goes supernova the shock wave passes through the cloud creating clumps that will eventually result in the new stars okay so what happens is that those clumps that are dense enough will start collapsing under their own guard they start a gravitational contraction and as they contract as the material falls in that clump starts heating up so in this process the gravitational energy is being converted into thermal energy as the clump contracts not really that anyways you get the point so this is one such dense Club clump and as it contracts it heats up as I've tried to indicate by this reddish color so what is being formed here is so-called protestor protostar is a star to be not full-fledged star that is fusing hydrogen into helium generating its energy that way it is heating up because of gravitational contraction now this process for gravitational energy converts into thermal energy actually operates everywhere in the universe if you would go to Niagara Falls nearby and measure the temperature of the water just before it comes down the Falls and then measure its temperature when the water has fallen down you will notice that it's slightly warmer and there again you have an example that the gravitational energy as the water is being pulled down by the Earth's gravity is converted when it eventually slams into the mass of water at the bottom of the Falls that it's temperature slightly goes up as a result of this conversion of gravitational into thermal energy okay so that is a general principle and basically this gravitational contraction is causing the this clump to get first of all more dense but also it heats up so if the clump had enough mass so that the temperature in the core of the protostar reaches at least 10 million degrees Kelvin then the nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium will start a degree Kelvin is another unit for measuring the temperature is basically it's zero corresponds to minus 273.16 degrees Celsius right or Celsius 0 corresponds to 273.16 Kelvin but ahead when the temperature is expressed in the millions of degrees that shift of just under 300 is developed so it doesn't really matter you can say Celsius here it is the difference between Kelvin scale and Celsius scale is irrelevant for these values of temperature and the protostar will soon after some period of instability enter the main-sequence stage and the total star becomes start and it turns out that if the larger the mass of the clump the faster it will contract and become a main sequence star so this so-called color star stage is shorter for her master's in reservation and it's longer for the lower mass stars so here you can see what I'm talking about on this schematic presentation of what happens to stars of different mass those that are very massive will eventually they will reach high temperatures and the energy production rate is going to be very high and they end up at the top of the main sequence the star like our Sun of one solar mass will end up somewhere in the middle of the main sequence and then a low mass star of about half solar mass will end up near the bottom of the main-sequence star okay and it turns out that for a mass like for the star like this one of 15 solar masses this entire protostar stage as it is contracting a loss may be a hundred thousand years or so right and as the mass is reduced the time becomes much much longer it takes longer for the start to contract for this one here the contraction a period lasts 160 million years for the one that has a mass of five times the mass of the Sun it is 700 million years a star that has a mass of two solar masses it is the contraction period is about eight million years and for star of one solar mass like our Sun the protostar stage lasts about 30 million years and for a star whose mass is 1/2 mass of the Sun it is 100 million years okay so you indeed you see that the more massive the star the shorter is that protostar stage because everything happens much more quickly because of the large mass the object contracts much more quickly than if the mass is reduced now I should also point out that we can observe the protostars they are typically hidden in the interior of a giant molecular cloud right we can't see those protostars they are indeed in the interior of those columns but once they become hot enough we can observe them again in infrared because their tab elevated temperature causes them to shine at infrared wavelengths okay but not from the very beginning they have to become hot enough so there is a line so that parallels the main sequence that is often referred to as the birth line all right so once the protostar crosses this birth birth line once its temperature is high enough because as they contract their temperature as you can see increases all the time but once it gets hot enough that is such that it crosses this birth line then we can see them at infrared do my law enforcement capstone projects Finger Lakes Community College.